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This Vedio is for Class 12 Student and those who prepearing for competition exam
Bricks breads and bones Important Question (2 MARKS)
1. List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan civilisation and
discuss how these might have been obtained.
Ans. The variety of materials used to make beads is remarkable: stones like carnelian (of a
beautiful red colour), jasper, crystal, quartz and steatite; metals like copper, bronze and gold;
and shell, faience and terracotta or burnt clay.
Two methods of procuring materials for craft production:
1. They established settlements such as Nageshwar, Shortughai and Balakot.
2. They might have sent expeditions to areas such as the Khetri region of Rajasthan (for
Copper) and south India (for gold).

2. “Our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than that of the other
Civilizations”. Explain it by your arguments?
Ans. Yes, our knowledge about the Indus Valley Civilization is poorer than that of the other
because of the following reasons:
1. The script of that age has hitherto not been deciphered.
2. The easy method behind seeking knowledge about other Civilizations such as that of Egypt,
Mesopatamia, China etc. was the deciphering of their scripts. Scripts is that sole basis
through which we can gather through knowledge about the art, literature, customs, dresses,
function and religion etc. of any Civilizations

3. What were the confusions in the mind of Cunningham while studying Harappan
Ans. He used the accounts left by Chinese Buddhist pilgrims who had visited the
subcontinent between the fourth and seventh centuries CE. He thought that Indian history
began with the first cities in the Ganga valley. In fact, Cunningham’s main interest was in the
archaeology of the Early Historic (c. sixth century BCE fourth century CE) and later periods.

4. What were the differences in the techniques adopted by Marshall and Wheeler in
studying Harappan civilization?
Ans. Marshall tended to excavate along regular horizontal units, measured uniformly
throughout the mound, ignoring the stratigraphy of the site. This meant that all the artefacts
recovered from the same unit were grouped together, even if they were found at different
stratigraphic layers. As a result, valuable information about the context of these finds was
irretrievably lost. R.E.M. Wheeler rectified this problem. Wheeler recognised that it was
necessary to follow the stratigraphy of the mound rather than dig mechanically along
uniform horizontal lines.

5. “Burials is a better source to trace social differences prevalent in the Harappan
civilization”. Discuss.
Ans. 1. Studying burials is a strategy to find out social differences.
2. At burials in Harappan sites the dead were generally laid in pits. Sometimes, there were
differences in the way the burial pit was made – in some instances; the hollowed-out spaces
were lined with bricks.
3. Some graves contain pottery and ornaments, perhaps indicating a belief that these could
be used in the afterlife. Jewellery has been found in burials of both men and women.

6. Write a note on the Drainage system of the Harappans.
Ans. One of the striking features of this town was a well-planned drainage system. The
drains were made of mortar, lime and gypsum. They were covered with big bricks and
stones which could be lifted easily to clean the drains. Smaller drains from houses on both
the sides of the streets came and joined a brick laid main channel. Bigger drains which
cleared the rain water were 2 and half feet to 5 feet in circumference. For sewage from the
houses, pits were provided at either side of the street. All this shows that the Indus vall